9th March 2020 | By Daniel O’Boyle Betclic Everest Group’s Central Europe-facing subsidiary Bet-at-Home brought in revenue of €143.3m in 2019, almost exactly level with its 2018 total, while back taxes in Austria hit the operator’s full-year profit. Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter Betclic Everest Group’s Central Europe-facing subsidiary Bet-at-Home brought in revenue of €143.3m in 2019, almost exactly level with its 2018 total, while back taxes in Austria hit the operator’s full-year profit.Revenue remained static as betting turnover increased 0.9% to €3.22bn, a record high for the operator.Betting and gaming taxes declined slightly, to €20.9m, while VAT on electronic services came to €4.9m, down 32.9%.These lower costs meant that net gaming revenue increased by 2.0% to €117.5m.The operator’s marketing expenses increased 3.9% to €39.8m, with the business saying it focused its marketing in 2019 on on the start of the 2019-20 European football season due to the lack of a major international tournament for the sport during the year.Bet-at-Home’s earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) for the year came to €35.2m, down 2.9%.Earnings before interest and tax declined 4.9% to €33.2m, and after a financial loss of €138,000, earnings before tax came to €33.1m, down 5.4%.The operator paid a much higher tax burden in 2019 than 2018, due to corporate tax back payments in Austria from changes in group transfer pricing. While Bet-at-Home paid only 6.8% of earnings in tax in 2018, in 2019 it paid 45.7%.Overall, the consolidated profit for the year came to €18.0m, down 44.8%.For the fourth quarter of 2019, bet-at-Home took in revenue of €36.5m on turnover of €779.6m. Net gaming revenue came to €29.6m, EBITDA €8.2m and earnings before tax €7.5m. Consolidated profit came to €12.2m.Bet-at-Home’s board said it expects gross gaming revenue of €120m to €132m for 2020.This lower projection was mainly due to loss of “essential” parts of the Swiss market after a where a new regulatory framework in which only land-based operators are permitted to operate online came into force from 1 January 2019. Switzerland’s regulator, Inter-Cantonal Lotteries and Betting Commission (Comlot), has created a blacklist of unlicenced gaming sites, which includes Bet-at-Home.In addition, a “significant” decline in the Polish market played a part in the lower expecation.The board added that a decline in revenue from Germany is possible but “can currently not be estimated and is therefore not considered”.The board expects EBITDA in the range of €23m and €27m for 2020. Email Address Topics: Finance Sports betting Bet-at-Home sees tax burden hit earnings in 2019 Regions: Europe Central and Eastern Europe Poland Switzerland Finance
Apart from this, Johnson is a hard man to predict. There is no real way of knowing what position he wants to shake up. If he sees Stuart Hogg as a 13 he might be looking at Peter Murchie at Glasgow to come on. If he wants to give Richie Gray a new international partner he might want to see Grant Gilchrist buckle down for Edinburgh on Sunday, and Glasgow Warrior Rob Harley is rumoured to be linked with a 7 spot, even though it is unlikely to be his position versus Northampton Saints.With the retirement of Mike Blair, though, it is highly likely that Greig Laidlaw, who has moved back to 9 recently for Edinburgh, will be Johnson’s goal-kicking scrumhalf.So, the decision facing Johnson is whether he picks an in-form Ruaridh Jackson or hauls Tom Heathcote all the way up to a starting spot. The decision could be made purely based on whether Heathcote gets a look in. Would a run-out against Romania’s Bucharesti be enough to get him selected? Unlikely.Johnson will be hoping Jackson clings on against Northampton without scuppering himself. Otherwise an out of sorts Duncan Weir and a short on experience Heathcote will be tentatively wrestling over a jersey.Declan Kidney, IrelandThe Ireland coach may be forgiven for ignoring others to watch Ulster for the next wee while. He has to decide if Iain Henderson, Chris Henry, Craig Gilroy, Darren Cave and Paddy Jackson will join Ulster’s other illustrious names in the Ireland squad.Kidney will possibly be turning off his phone. He will not want to hear bad news about Brian O’Driscoll, Rob Kearney and Luke FitzgeraldNew leader: Ireland’s Jamie HeaslipSimon Zebo , Peter O’Mahony and Donnacha Ryan may excel in this tough time, too, and Dave Kilcoyne may even thrive, but that phone will not be getting checked.Connacht against Zebre? That is the kind of game where Mike McCarthy could get an innocuous hit…Stuart Lancaster, EnglandHis preparations for camp will be meticulous. He has a vast remit but in the secular surroundings of training, when he addresses his squad for the first time everyone will listen. Yet it remains to be seen whether defeating New Zealand during the Autumn Internationals was something that ends up making Lancaster’s job harder as he tinkers and tweaks a team that is still far from the finished article.Of course, much of his tinkering depends on what is available to him. He must also not get sidetracked by results. Lancaster must look at them like the near-inevitable Sarries win against Edinburgh in the last round and see past Farrell’s haul. He must determine what shape he wants. Especially if Toby Flood is able to navigate the Tigers past Toulouse.He needs his skipper to survive Harlequins’ trip to Biarritz, and the shape of his back three depends on how Messrs Brown and Foden and Goode fare in the air.Philippe Saint-André, FranceShoe-in: Big Louis PicamolesThe larder is most certainly not bare for lucky Philippe.We could rattle off a list of surprising and redoubtable performers in the Top 14, Amlin and Heineken this season but it would make us all sick from worry. All that is apparent is that Saint-André has Louis Picamoles, Freddy Michalak and Wesley Fofana ready to hit their straps. LONDON, ENGLAND – MAY 19: Jamie Heaslip of Leinster lifts the trophy during the Heineken Cup Final between Leinster and Ulster at Twickenham Stadium on May 19, 2012 in London, United Kingdom. (Photo by David Rogers/Getty Images) LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS Freed: Having been cleared to play, Flood will hope to catch Lancaster’s eye in the final pool match against ToulouseBy Alan DymockTHERE IS one round of Heineken Cup and Amlin action left before the taut, stomach-churning charge of the Six Nations reaches us.For international head coaches, picking a side is tough. It may be a case of picking up the casualties at the end of the Heineken and Amlin group stages and seeing who is fit to fall into the grinder again.This is what each international coach will be looking for over the next two weeks.Jacques Brunel, ItalyInvestigative: Jacques BrunelThe former Perpignan coach may look like the lead police investigator in a dreary French drama but he has an acute focus and a drive that Italy benefitted from last year.He knows Italy must hustle to victory and that pragmatism is only rewarded if points can be attained. The problem is that Zebre are so poor in every competition that they rely heavily on Luciano Orquera and Daniel Halangahu to get points.Halangahu is not qualified to play for Italy, while Orquera’s record is not as good Kris Burton’s this season. In the last outing against Australia, Brunel plumped for Orquera. It will be a choice between this pair to see who guides the side, while Wasps’ Andrea Masi tends to slot in at fullback.Brunel needs and depends on two men, more than these three, though.If Italy are to stand any chance of snatching victories in this year’s Six Nations, Robert Barbieri (a try-maven of late) and Sergio Parisse must kept off the treatment table. Masi survived his game against the Dragons on Thursday. while Parisse is rested by Stade Francais. All eyes will be on Benneton Treviso this Sunday to see if Barbieri is spared.Survival: Mike Phillips with BayonneRob Howley, WalesHowley has had a haunted look of late. The pallid shell of a scrum half has dragged himself around, hoping to frown his way to victory.No more, though. The caretaker coach has a crown to protect and will know that he must inspire and fire. Beside him is also a newly refocused Shaun Edwards, who will not want for motivation after his perceived Lions snub.So what do the beleaguered pair want? Well firstly, they will need Dan Biggar to keep slowly rolling towards the Six Nations.Dan Lydiate is rumoured to be hobbling towards the big tournament, too, but they cannot rely on him and will see him until the latter rounds. Instead, Wales must look to the likes of Alex Cuthbert, who seems at home on the European stage, unlike many of his teammates, and Justin Tipuric and Adam Jones. To pull through, unscathed. Paul James may also play his way into a certain starting berth if he keeps receiving the praise he’s had at Bath.Tavis Knoyle may be seen as an auxiliary, but he will want to look sharp against giants Clermont Auvergne, particularly as Mike Phillips will be dodging bullets throughout an Amlin fixture against Rugby Mogliano. Jonathan Davies need emerge unscathed.Scott Johnson, ScotlandVersatile: Greig Laidlaw can play at 9 or 10It was impossible for Johnson to ignore Johnnie Beattie with his form at Montpellier. So the coach will be on his knees praying that the No.8 pulls through an inexplicable stint on the flank against Toulon tomorrow. With these performers primed it is now about Saint-André selecting a supporting cast. Not that regional coaches ever help much, here. He could call full back Jean-Marcellin Buttin into his starting XV, but Buttin does not feature against Scarlets. Will truck-sized Mathieu Basteraud excel against Montpellier after his MOTM performance last week? Can Yannick Forestier stand out in the front row against Ulster? Is David Attoub likely to put his hand up against London Welsh’s props? Will Wenceslas Lauret show himself good enough to bench after tangling with Robshaw? On and on and on…If France turn up they could win the whole thing this year. This weekend is all about picking players for the Italian job.
Products translation missing: en-US.post.svg.material_description Products used in this ProjectWindowsReynaers AluminiumWindow Systems – SlimLine 38Developer Industrial Heritage:BoeiContractor / Developer:Nico De Bont TBIBuilding Advice:K+Country:The NetherlandsMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Tim van de VeldeText description provided by the architects. De Lakfabriek is part of the former leather factory complex KVL, which for years was one of the largest leather producers in Europe. De Lakfabriek initially served to paint the leather sheets, subsequently it functionated as a technical service. In 2001 the company ceased operations and closed their doors.Save this picture!Site PlanSince then, the factory complex have been largely restored, redesigned and has been unfolding itself into a lively and attractive area. De Lakfabriek is the first repurposed building on the site with a residential destination; the building has been transformed by Wenink Holtkamp Architects on behalf of BOEi and Nico de Bont TBI.Save this picture!© Tim van de VeldeIndustrial characterThe building, designed in 1925 by architect A. Benoit, is characterized by an unambiguous brick architecture. The rigid division of the façade openings and the vertical brickwork elements results in a rhythmic facade.Save this picture!BeforeSave this picture!© Tim van de VeldePreserving the industrial character of the former factory building was one of the core values of the transformation. This is exemplified by the raw concrete structure which has been left visible as much as possible in the interior of the housing units.The industrial look is maintained in the façade by the use of new slender aluminum window frames with a classic profile that refer to the original steel window frames, which unfortunately could not be preserved.Save this picture!© Tim van de VeldeHousingBy adding a glass extension to the roof an extra building layer is created. The modern and minimalistic structure clearly distinguishes itself from the existing architecture through language and materialization, but suits itself in a natural way into the whole. On the top floor, roof terraces are created by placing the extension backwards in relation to the existing façade.Save this picture!© Tim van de VeldeThe 25 living units are realized in three different types: studios, apartments and ground-based homes. The layout of each house is designed in consultation with the future residents, accompanied by Wenink Holtkamp Architecten. This concept resulted in a colorful range of housing types, “The house as a custom-made suit for the residents.”Save this picture!© Tim van de VeldeSave this picture!Before / Ground floor planSave this picture!© Tim van de VeldeSave this picture!After / First floor planSave this picture!© Tim van de VeldeProject gallerySee allShow lessSasaki Designs a Panda Reserve in Chengdu, China to Aid Wildlife PreservationArchitecture NewsThe Unlikely Life, Death and Rebirth of the Hastings PierArticlesProject locationAddress:Oisterwijk, The NetherlandsLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Van Thiel Optimaal 2018 De Lakfabriek / Wenink Holtkamp Architecten ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/904708/de-lakfabriek-wenink-holtkamp-architecten Clipboard Save this picture!© Tim van de Velde+ 30Curated by María Francisca González Share “COPY” Mechanical Installation: CopyApartments, Adaptive Reuse•The Netherlands Architects: Wenink Holtkamp Architecten Area Area of this architecture project Constructor: ArchDaily Year: Copal ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/904708/de-lakfabriek-wenink-holtkamp-architecten Clipboard Photographs Photographs: Tim van de Velde Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project Vianen Bouwadvies Electrical Installation: De Lakfabriek / Wenink Holtkamp ArchitectenSave this projectSaveDe Lakfabriek / Wenink Holtkamp Architecten Area: 1200 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project The Netherlands Manufacturers: Reynaers Aluminium, Alhako, Betopor, Breman, Waxed Wood Projects Apartments “COPY” CopyAbout this officeWenink Holtkamp ArchitectenOfficeFollowProductsGlassConcreteBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsRefurbishmentAdaptive reuseThe NetherlandsPublished on October 29, 2018Cite: “De Lakfabriek / Wenink Holtkamp Architecten” 29 Oct 2018. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Joanna Motion has been appointed Executive Director of CASE Europe, and will take up the post at the end of August 2000.Joanna moves from her position as Director of Communications and Development at the University of Kent at Canterbury, where in 1998 she led the merger of the development and public relations offices to form a new, integrated function. New CASE Europe Director appointed AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis 18 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Advertisement Howard Lake | 18 April 2000 | News
“You’d have to be crazy to bathe in that water,” a SCI Mahanoy prison guard told Mumia Abu-Jamal after seeing the black, foul-smelling water filling his sink. Yet the toxic water plaguing Mahanoy and other Pennsylvania prisons has left prisoners no option other than to use the water or not bathe at all.For prisoners, including Abu-Jamal, who has untreated hepatitis C, the toxic water exacerbates existing health conditions. He suffers from excessive itching linked to hep C.Department of Corrections officials have done little to remedy the water crisis, claiming they are “fixing it” and periodically rationing bottled water. Mahanoy prisoners receive three cups of water daily with meals.From SCI Frackville prison, Major Tillery, a prisoners’ advocate, wrote Oct. 12: “We haven’t had clean water here for over four months. The water is brown and smells. The guards drink bottled water. We complained and first were told nothing was wrong. Then for three days, a month or so ago, prisoners were given a gallon of bottled water a day. Since then, it’s back to drinking and showering in dirty water.”Is coal the culprit?While Mahanoy and Frackville prisoners recently sounded the alarm, other Pennsylvania prisons’ water and air contamination problems go back years. At SCI Fayette in La Belle, Pa., prisoners and guards reported serious health concerns in 2010, including shortness of breath, dizziness, and body sores and tumors.Prisoners, guards and La Belle residents have experienced alarmingly high rates of kidney, thyroid and breast cancers, reported Vice magazine in May 2015. Fayette prison was constructed atop a coal mining site; its coal ash dump produced fine-particle residue that drifted into the town and prison. Coal ash contains toxic and carcinogenic chemicals; 3.4 million tons of it is still deposited annually near the site. Two coal slurry ponds, suspected of contaminating drinking water, increased the cancer risk to 1 in 50 residents.The Abolitionist Law Center, a public-interest law firm, citing the Eighth Amendment ban against “cruel and unusual punishment,” began investigating 75 Fayette prisoners’ complaints. The state DOC’s 2015 investigation said the water met “drinking standards,” and Pennsylvania’s Department of Health claimed the environment doesn’t contribute to the cancer risk.Coal mining threatens Schuylkill’s waterThe Schuylkill County Municipal Authority (SCMA) provides water and sewer services for most of the county and appears to be the provider for Frackville and Mahanoy, though the DOC won’t confirm this.The area contains abandoned underground mines, plus active Reading Anthracite Company mines. Mountain-top removal strip mining was practiced there. Reading’s largest abandoned strip mine, located at the West Branch Schuylkill River’s headwaters, could be contaminating water reservoirs used by nearby Frackville and Mahanoy prisons.Explosives that blow up mountainsides often leave chemical tracers. Coal preparation and coal washing employ a “chemical bath” to separate coal from other minerals, leaving behind toxic, chemical-laced wastewater. It is often stored in dams and slurry ponds, which can break, flooding and polluting groundwater aquifers. Black, oily coal wastewater is also stored in underground wells that leak and contaminate groundwater.Abandoned mines are sources of acid mine drainage (AMD) that occurs when pyritic material reacts with water and oxygen. AMDs acidify water, helping heavy metals dissolve, which are then discharged into rivers. High levels of AMDs exist in Schuylkill River tributaries.It’s difficult to prove coal production caused water contamination at Mahanoy and Frackville. SCMA, managed by Pennsylvania American Water, a subsidiary of for-profit American Water, has not reported water contamination. American Water caused several water-related health catastrophes in West Virginia and hasn’t responded to public concerns.Prisoners at West Virginia’s South Central Charleston Regional Jail were not notified when a tank holding a coal preparation chemical spilled into the Elk River, contaminating water for 300,000 people in 2014. Uninformed, they bathed and drank the toxic water. Prisoners who protested were beaten and thrown into solitary confinement.Naval Air Station polluted waterWater tested positive for the carcinogenic toxin chronium-6 at Montgomery County’s SCI Graterford prison. This was linked to leakage of fire retardants used at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base into sources of county drinking water.With rural Pennsylvania factories closed, leaving hundreds of thousands of workers unemployed, the state’s solution was to build prisons there. They were often built on or near coal production sites or in areas fracked for natural gas, creating health problems for residents and prisoners alike.The state Department of Environmental Protection, Health Department and DOC won’t acknowledge or clean up the water and air crises created by energy extraction operations. Only when activist groups like the Abolitionist Law Center, Pennsylvania’s Human Rights Coalition and the International Concerned Family and Friends of Mumia Abu-Jamal coalition challenge prison authorities can any real change happen.ICFFMAJ recently demonstrated about the water crisis outside state prisons, and has called for a Dec. 9 mass mobilization in Philadelphia on this issue and more. For information, contact [email protected]reShare this
Guatemala. Don’t put the Guatemalan press in quarantine! Receive email alerts News Red alert for green journalism – 10 environmental reporters killed in five years Help by sharing this information May 8, 2020 Find out more News August 21, 2020 Find out more News Follow the news on Guatemala August 25, 2008 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Editor of daily El Periódico abducted and drugged and a journalist assaulted within 24 hours News GuatemalaAmericas GuatemalaAmericas January 7, 2021 Find out more to go further Organisation Guatemala: 51 Signatories Call For Authorities To Drop Criminal Charges Against Indigenous Journalist Anastasia Mejía Reporters Without Borders today voiced its support and called for stepped up protection for the staff of the daily El Periódico, after its editor was abducted and injected with barbiturates and an investigative journalist was beaten up and threatened within a 24-hour period.Editor, José Rubén Zamora, was snatched on 20 August before being released barely conscious eight hours later while journalist, Oscar Ismatul, was ambushed the following day and threatened by four men who told him to “shut up”.“Despite the appearance of ordinary crime, since both victims were robbed, these attacks seem above all aimed at silencing staff on El Periódico”, the worldwide press freedom organisation said. “The warning was completely unmistakeable in the case of Oscar Ismatul, who has been writing articles for the paper about official corruption. Staff on El Periódico should get protection and we hope that a prompt investigation will uncover who was responsible”, it added.Ismatul was chased by four men in a white car after he left the office in the afternoon of 21 August. Realising he was being followed, he got into a bus but as he got off again the driver of the white car blocked his path, while the three others lying in wait on the street corner managed to trap him. They beat him up threatening him with guns and ordered him to “shut up” or face serious danger. His assailants also snatched his notes and papers, before forcing him to walk away in the opposition direction. Editor, José Rubén Zamora, who was abducted 24 hours earlier, had his mobile phone and credit cards stolen. It was discovered that that he had been injected with barbiturates as a result of a blood test taken after the incident. RSF_en Reporters Without Borders called for protection for the offices of the daily El Periódico and its most exposed staff, after its editor José Rubén Zamora was abducted and released seriously ill and one of his journalists, Oscar Ismatul, was beaten up 24 hours later.
Mario Tama/Getty Images(WASHINGTON) — The number of deaths in Puerto Rico spiked dramatically toward the end of 2017, according to data released Friday by the island’s Demographic Registry, bolstering claims of an undercount of fatalities related to Hurricane Maria.The figures show that there was an increase of 1,397 deaths on the island during the September through December 2017 compared to the same period the year before.Hurricane Maria made landfall as a category 4 storm on Sept. 20, 2017.During the first full month after Maria made land fall, the island say an increase of 683 deaths compared to Oct. 2016.The report does not indicate which of the September 2017 deaths occurred before Maria struck nor did the agency provide location, cause or ages of the dead.The document released Friday also indicates there were an additional 209 deaths on the island during the next three months, January through March of 2018, compared with the first three months of 2017.In a statement, Wanda Llovet Diaz, the director of the Demographic Registry said “The public information on fatalities was consistently provided in accordance with the public policy of transparency.”Earlier this week, researchers at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health estimated that between Sept. 20 and Dec. 31, there were 4,645 “excess deaths,” according to the report in the New England Journal of Medicine. The government’s official death toll currently stands at 64.The report relied on household surveys to generate the estimate, which researchers said had a margin of error of plus or minus 3,852, meaning the actual number of deaths could be as low as 793 or as high as 8,498. However, they say about 5,000 is a likely figure.The number of lives claimed following Maria remains something of a mystery on the island. A team from George Washington University is currently leading an independent effort, commissioned by the island’s government, to count the dead. Dr. Lynn Goldman, dean of the Milken Institute School of Public Health, told ABC News the task of counting the deaths is an exhausting one that involves interviewing people involved in the care of those who passed away.Copyright © 2018, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.
Luton mobilises over job lossesOn 30 Jan 2001 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article Atleast 3,000 workers at Vauxhall’s Luton plant went on strike last Thursday asGM Europe and the European Works Council Manufacturing committee met in Zurichto discuss plans for the Luton closure. Under discussion was whether GM Europebreached European rules on employee consultation.Speakingto Personnel Today, Bruce Warman, personnel director for Vauxhall, said,”The outcome of the discussions were that there are no plans to move awayfrom our restructuring proposals. We are looking at developing a framework ofunderstanding on how to deal with issues like this.”Headded, “The unions are still looking at whether GM Europe has breachedrules on employee consultation but as I understand it, no legal action is beingtaken.”Thestrike by the Vauxhall workers was part of a European-wide protest by nearly40,000 workers at GM Europe at the American car giant’s plan to cut thousandsof jobs. “Therehas been no consultation between employees and management over these plans tocease car production in Luton,” said a spokesperson for the T&G union.Theunion is urging the British Government to sign up to the EU directive onconsultation and information so employees can be kept informed of managementplans.
The phenomenon of bipolarity, one of the major disjunct distribution patterns on the face of the earth, has been investigated repeatedly since the mid-nineteenth century. Running through the many hypotheses that have been put forward to account for its occurrence, it is possible to detect two persistent themes: it is usually interpreted within a dispersal framework, and it is generally believed to be of comparatively recent origin. To many authors, the phenomenon is intimately linked to the Plio-Pleistocene glaciations. Recent palaentological investigations have extablished that bipolarity can now be traced back to at least the Early Jurassic period (i.e. 200 m.y.a.). Here it is well marked in the Pliensbachian stage by a variety of pectinacean bivalve taxa. Further bivalves indicate probable Middle Jurassic examples, but the phenomenon is more clearly seen in the Late Jurassic, especially in the Tithonian stage. At this time, in-oceramid, buchiid and oxytomid bivalve occurrences at northern hemisphere localities such as arctic Canada, N.W. Europe, Siberia, N.E. USSR and Japan can be matched with those in southern South America, Antarctica and Australasia. A striking Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) bipolar pattern for the oxytomid Aucellina may be complemented by several infaunal bivalves, brachiopods and at least one gastropod. There is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that bipolar molluscs continued to develop through the Cenozoic era. Such is the level of generic and subfamilial differentiation within certain living forms as to suggest that they must be the product of a considerable evolutionary history. It is likely that present-day distribution patterns of prosobranch gastropod groups such as th whelks (Buccinidae), together with certain fissurellids, littorinids, naticids and turrids, can be related to a late Paleogene-early Neogene phase of bipolarity. Many amphitropical taxa, in both the marine and terrestrial realms, have probable late Neogene-Pleistocene origins. It is possible to set the Jurassic and Cretaceous examples of bipolarity within a largely vicariant framework based upon the disintegration of the Pangean supercontinent. In this way the widespread ranges of putative Triassic ancestors were disrupted by tectonic processes in low latitude regions, although it should be emphasized that major climatic and oceanographic changes were almost certainly involved too. Similarly, it is possible to view late Paleogene earl Neogene bipolarity as a vicariant event, but this time with climatic change identified as the single most important agent. Widespread or cosmopolitan distributions are held to have formed during global cool phases (such as the late Eocene-early Miocene) only to be disrupted by global warming (such as in the late early Miocene). It is even possible to view Plio-Pleistocene patterns as, at leat in part, the products of vicariant events caused by rapid temperature and sea level shifts. Clearly, there is an urgent need here for more critical taxonomic data to test these various hypotheses. Phylogenetic studies of groups such as the Mesozoic bivalve superfamily Monotoidea and the Cenozoic Buccinidae, in particular, should constitute future rigorous tests. In so doing, they should also provide much useful information on the relative roles of dispersal and vicariance in promoting global disjunction in marine faunas. Repeated formation of bipolar patterns through geological time may have had important implications for modes of speciation and phenomena such as the origin of taxonomic diversity gradients.