By Dialogo March 16, 2009 GENEVA, March 13, 2009 (AFP) – This Friday founders of the World Wide Web (WWW) celebrate their invention’s twentieth anniversary at its birthplace, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva. The Web (la Red in Spanish) was created by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee and his colleagues at CERN (which is officially called the European Organization for Nuclear Research) to help the thousands of scientists who collaborate on the organization’s studies stay in touch and share the results of their work over long distances. In March 1989, Berners-Lee, a young programming engineer on a temporary contract at CERN, presented a paper titled “Information Management: A Proposal.” His superior in Geneva called the draft “vague but exciting” and approved it. ”They had the feeling that sooner or later it was going to happen,” recalled Belgian engineer Robert Caillau, who teamed with Berners-Lee. Together they began to study the language of hypertext – which begins the acronym ”http” in Internet protocol – and in October 1990 they developed the first Internet browser, which is strikingly similar to current ones. ”Everything we use now, blogs, etc, that was what we did in 1990. There’s no difference. That was how we started,” Cailliau told the Swiss radio station RSR. This new technology was made available to the public in 1991, when CERN concluded that it did not have the capacity to ensure its development. Two years later, the organization refused to receive royalties for the invention that revolutionized the world of communications. However, we must not confuse the Web with the Internet, warns Lynn St. Amour, President of the Internet Society, for whom “the great success of Tim Berners-Lee was in understanding the power and potential of the Internet.” ”The Web is one of its applications, the best known and most widespread use of the Internet,” she explains. Cailliau, on his part, is still amazed by the applications of the WWW and says that he would never have imagined that search engines would become so important. ”I never thought that search engines would succeed. Those things are highly centralized while the web is completely decentralized,” he said, without concealing that, on the other hand, certain things irritate him about the business aspect of the development of the Web. ”There are things I do not like: that some people live off advertising, because I designed a model with automatic payment to pay information providers directly with digital currency,” Cailliau emphasized. “And there is, of course, the big problem of identity, the trust between those who post web pages (for users) and those who view them, and the protection of children,” he added. It is hoped that Tim Berners-Lee – currently a researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the United States, and professor at the British University of Southampton – will be present at the anniversary’s celebration. Berners-Lee still leads the consortium that coordinates the development of the Web.
By Dialogo January 01, 2010 Despite its own financial turmoil, Africa responded with search and rescue teams, security and relief funding. All together, African countries pledged more than $10 million in aid. Benin vowed to enhance security assistance to the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti, and Senegal offered free land to Haitians wishing to move there. China, which lost eight peacekeepers in the quake, contributed professional expertise in dealing with natural disasters through a 60-member rescue team, which included detection dogs and seismological experts. Japan sent a 24-member civilian medical team and a 110-member military team of medical and other personnel. Shortly after the quake, Israel provided a high-tech field hospital with an emergency room, two operating rooms, and a maternity and children’s ward. Jordan also established a field hospital. The 27 European Union member states approved $575 million in aid and a police force of 300. France dispatched the Francis Garnier, a ship that specializes in humanitarian missions, and three military transport planes. Norway earmarked $17.5 million for the World Food Program, Doctors without Borders, the Red Cross and other organizations. Haiti’s tragedy led to $39 million in private contributions from Canada. The country also deployed two warships, 2,000 military personnel and hosted the Ministerial Preparatory Conference of the Group of Friends of Haiti on January 25. Delegations from 13 countries, as well as international entities such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Organization of American States, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund convened at the conference to coordinate humanitarian aid and reconstruction efforts. U.S. Department of State, AP, Reuters
By Dialogo June 27, 2012 I insist; Guatemala when? In a ceremony presided over by Lieutenant General Marco Vera Ríos, the commander of the Ecuadorean Land Force, the South American country inaugurated two heliports donated by the United States as part of a cooperation agreement to support the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism along Ecuador’s northern border. The heliports are located in towns within the provinces of Imbabura and Carchi, and will be under the responsibility of the 36th (“Yaguachi”) Mechanized Cavalry Group. The event was attended by Colonel William Fleming, commander of the U.S. Military Group in Ecuador; Major General Gelio Zambrano, director of the Land Operations Command; Major General Hugo Villegas Torres, commander of the 1st (“Shyris”) Division of the Ecuadorean Army; Major General Fernando Proaño, commander of the 1st “Norte” Operational Group; General César Merizalde, delegate from the Operations Directorate of the Armed Forces Joint Command; and prominent politicians and civilians from the city of Quito.
Brazil hopes to capitalize on the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games to advance its goal of becoming the world’s third largest information technologies and communications market, said an industry senior executive in an interview. “Today we are the fifth largest market in the world of information technology and communication (ITC), valued at $ 210 billion dollars,” said Antonio Gil, President of the Brazilian Association of Companies (Brasscom). Brasscom, which includes local and foreign companies such as IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Ericsson and Lenovo, is developing a study with global management consulting firm McKinsey on how Brazil can reach third place worldwide, after China and the United States by 2022. Gil, a former IBM executive, said Brazil’s ITC strengths include its sophisticated financial services, electronic voting and tax systems; as well as, the widespread use of these technologies in energy, agriculture and industry. In 2010, Brasscom, which works closely with the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology and other government agencies, coordinated the development of a roadmap that identified opportunities for information technology in the two major sporting events. “Data from this study revealed that these major sporting events will generate investments of about $57 billion, of which 10% will be allocated to information technology, either directly to data and image transmission systems, or indirectly to areas of security, health, transportation and infrastructure,” the association pointed out. “For the Olympics, it is estimated that 36 billion images will be sent from Rio [de Janeiro] to the rest of the world”, illustrated Gil. “Today, Brazil has 250 million cellular phones, more than the population (of 191 million). But they are expensive due to high taxes, equivalent to 45% of the total price. Imagine if such taxes could be lowered by half,” he added. This month, the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology announced a $250 million dollar program to promote initiatives in the software and information technology industry, in an attempt to reduce the gap with developed countries. The goal is to train 50,000 new professionals by 2014, and 900,000 by 2022, all of whom will be added to the current 1.2 million professionals in the sector. The government also recently launched a $2 billion dollar program called “Science without Borders,” which will award 75,000 scholarships to Brazilian students over the next four years so they can attend prestigious foreign universities. Information technology currently represents around 4.5% of Brazil’s gross domestic product, a figure that should increase by 6.6% in 2022, according to Brasscom. The country has 74 technology parks, located mainly in the richest regions of the south and southeast, according to the Brazilian Association of Developing Entities of Innovative Entrepreneurship (Anprotec). By Dialogo September 04, 2012
By Kay Valle/Diálogo November 18, 2016 Drug trafficking is a multinational menace, especially to Northern Triangle nations. That’s why each country is taking steps to fight it. “Honduras in particular improves every day,” said Soraya Cálix, director of the Directorate for the Fight against Drug Trafficking (DLCN, per its Spanish acronym). The nation’s Public Ministry has several special units, including the DLCN, where the fight against drug trafficking begins. Director Cálix told Diálogo that drug seizures and other actions are a focal point for countering national and international organized crime activity. “According to the results of the detective work in this office, from 2015 to November 2016, drug seizures from national and international organized crime groups have doubled,” Cálix said. Lieutenant Colonel Santos Nolasco, spokesperson for Honduras’s National Inter-agency Security Force (FUSINA), reported that in addition to the increase in seizures, the transit of cocaine through Honduran territory decreased significantly due to FUSINA’s head-on assault against common and organized crime. This fight consists of implementing extreme measures, such as the ground, air, and maritime shield, and the joint work of law enforcement agencies. Throughout 2016, these measures have resulted in the confiscation of 15,000 kilos of cocaine, 700 kilos of cocaine paste, 200 barrels of precursor chemicals used in drug production, and the destruction of 10 drug laboratories. These drug seizures took place along the Atlantic seaboard. As a preventive measure, FUSINA focuses its operations in this area. In addition to the drug seizures, law-enforcement operations resulted in the dismantling of numerous criminal gangs engaged in drug trafficking. This has allowed for the extradition of 12 Honduran citizens wanted by the United States justice system for illegal drug trafficking. “The work carried out during almost three years of operation has allowed for the disabling of 137 clandestine landing strips used for unloading drugs,” said Lt. Col. Nolasco. Actions against drug trafficking DLCN focuses on coordinating and executing actions aimed at fighting drug trafficking in all its forms and modes. It began fighting drug trafficking in 1996. The corporation has 166 detectives distributed among four departments: Counter-Narcotics Investigations, Money-Laundering and Forfeiture Investigations, the K9 canine unit, and Investigations on the Diversion of Precursor Chemicals. The directorate is headquartered in Tegucigalpa. It also has three other main offices to coordinate and execute operations against drug dealing as well as large-scale seizure operations in ground, air, and maritime zones. “In an operation against drug dealing in the city of San Pedro Sula during the first six months of 2016, detectives from this directorate discovered a new form of distributing crack, now in blister packs, that drug dealers are using in the country’s largest cities,” Cálix said. “When the DLCN’s investigative actions lead to a seizure operation, its detectives is supported by FUSINA elements,” said Lt. Col. Nolasco. After the seizure, the drugs pass through a chain of custody as evidence for a court case, which then leads to penalties. Once the evidence is presented before the judge, it is destroyed. Fighting and prevention “In Honduras, the most produced and consumed drug is marijuana, whereas cocaine consumption is minimal,” reported Lt. Col. Santos. He added that “since October 28, 2014, we have confiscated 58,000 kilos of marijuana in Honduras to date. To prevent an increase in drug consumption in the country, the Military Police of Public Order implemented the ‘Live Better Drug-Free’ program.” According to FUSINA statistics, in 2016, the program provided prevention talks to more than 70,000 high-school students. Meanwhile, Cálix confirmed that combating drugs is not the DLCN’s sole responsibility. It also aims to raise awareness among the people about the health hazards posed by drug consumption. “We are raising awareness at the national level through a campaign called ‘Freedom and Health without Drugs,’ which carries out informational conferences in the nation’s educational centers,” she said. Cálix stressed that many of the seizures were achieved thanks to anonymous citizen complaints. “The success of many drug-seizure operations is thanks to citizen collaboration. We have a professional team of detectives ready to receive their complaints,” she concluded.
By Geraldine Cook/Diálogo April 30, 2018 The Guatemalan Air Force is going through a growth and evolution process. Brigadier General Timo Hernández Duarte, general commander of the Guatemalan Air Force, is committed to institutional transformation. New capacities, training, equipment, infrastructure, and a doctrine focused on helping the Guatemalan people are the foundation for the military organization’s new path. As the Guatemalan Air Force faces the modern world, humanitarian aid missions during natural disasters, national and international operations in the fight against narcotrafficking and transnational crime, as well as regional cooperation become crucial. Brig. Gen. Hernández spoke with Diálogo at the Western Hemisphere Exchange Symposium, within the framework of the 75th anniversary celebration of the Inter-American Air Forces Academy (IAAFA) in San Antonio, Texas, March 14th-16th. The officer addressed the Guatemalan Air Force’s new path, among other topics. Diálogo: What is the significance of the Guatemalan Air Force’s participation in this international symposium? Brigadier General Timo Hernández, general commander of the Guatemalan Air Force: This symposium is incredibly important for us because we are in the process of learning and transforming our logistical system, our maintenance and operational system, and we have the opportunity at this event to share new experiences and learn from other air forces in the region. Diálogo: The symposium is part of IAAFA’s 75th anniversary celebration. What do you think is IAAFA’s contribution to air forces in the region? Brig. Gen. Hernández: IAAFA had a very arduous trajectory, with many challenges over the past 75 years, but it bore fruit its founders and members had hoped for throughout its history. Its support has been essential, especially for Central American countries since we received training and collaboration on different issues. I hope that IAAFA continues to have that helping spirit, fostering fellowship and trust among all air forces of the Americas so that we might grow together and become stronger. Diálogo: As an IAAFA graduate, can you tell us about your experience here? Brig. Gen. Hernández: I took the leadership course in 1997, and it was a very enriching experience that helped me a lot in my military career and also personally. Although I’m a graduate and I am thankful for IAAFA’s education, today in my capacity as commander, I want to express my utmost gratitude to the academy not only for what I received personally but also for what I now receive, which benefits my institution. Today, I represent the voice of all airmen and officers from the Guatemalan Air Force who attended this academy, and, from that perspective, I appreciate IAAFA much more. I wish every member of my air force could have this academic and camaraderie-building experience. Diálogo: Humanitarian aid and disaster relief is one of the main points of coordination for the air forces. What are the efforts of the Guatemalan Air Force in this area? Brig. Gen. Hernández: This is one of the fundamental tasks that the Guatemalan Air Force focuses on. This mission comes directly from our president, Jimmy Morales. The capacities we have specifically aim to serve the population in humanitarian aid missions, search and rescue, and missions to protect our natural resources—unfortunately under the threat of forest fires in the jungles to the north of our country. We want to recover some of our capacities to strengthen our mission to the benefit of all Guatemalan people, both directly, when we do humanitarian aid and rescue, and indirectly, when we take action to protect our natural forests. Diálogo: Guatemala belongs to the Northern Triangle countries, along with El Salvador and Honduras. How do the air forces of the Northern Triangle join together to fight narcotrafficking and other transnational criminal threats? Brig. Gen. Hernández: Our relationship with El Salvador and Honduras is excellent, but we were already working together before within the framework of the Central American Armed Forces Conference, which gave us the opportunity to improve our communication and interact in exercises and activities of Central American countries. We have the Alliance for Prosperity Plan in the Northern Triangle of Central America, which is one more reason for communication and interaction to grow stronger among us. Diálogo: The collaboration between air forces of the region is key to face shared threats, especially to combat transnational criminal organizations. How does the Guatemalan Air Force collaborate with regional air forces to counteract this scourge? Brig. Gen. Hernández: Part of what concerns us in general is transnational crime threats, and, in Guatemala, we’ve developed many operations to counter this scourge—both internally and with countries in the region. We have excellent communication with our neighbors Honduras, El Salvador, and Mexico, with whom we joined forces, and have a very tight relationship to monitor and unite against this scourge. We also cooperate with other countries in the area, such as Colombia, with whom we maintain a close relationship of support so we can become stronger in this regional fight. International cooperation is key to confronting these threats together. For example, working with countries like the United States, which has technology, knowledge, and experience, is essential. All the help and assistance they provide allow us to get stronger and acquire capacities to face transnational threats, since we can’t face them alone. Diálogo: How does the Guatemalan Air Force support the role of women within its ranks? Brig. Gen. Hernández: The role of women in the armed forces has evolved. Women have been accepted into military academies since 1995. Their inclusion is welcomed, and really helped advance the forces in general. We see it as a positive step in the Air Force, through which women develop professionally to support the institution’s many developments and the country in general. Diálogo: What are the plans for the Guatemalan Air Force? Brig. Gen. Hernández: We are in a redesign process. Unfortunately in the past few decades, many of our capacities have been lost, and resources have been scarce. We are beginning a new era for the institution. Our president, Jimmy Morales, wants to give major support to the Air Force because he knows what can be achieved with better capacities, since we have the capital to acquire a few small aircraft. We’re not talking about acquiring war capacities but capacities for the benefit of the people, for humanitarian aid, search and rescue, and to fight forest fires. Diálogo: What message do you have for the air forces of the region? Brig. Gen. Hernández: We have to be united, work hand in hand, because threats are not specific to one country. We all face them. During this symposium, we stressed that we are stronger when we work together.
By Olufemi Terry / Share America September 25, 2019 Along with licenses issued by the U.S. Department of the Treasury, these measures provide safeguards for the Venezuelan people’s access to humanitarian goods and activities of the interim government under Juan Guaidó.“The United States is acting assertively to cut off Maduro financially and accelerate a peaceful democratic transition,” U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton said of the U.S. sanctions at a meeting of the Lima Group on August 6 in Lima, Peru.In issuing the executive order, Trump cited Nicolás Maduro’s “continued usurpation of power” and the former regime’s human rights abuses. Since Maduro came to power in 2013, his corruption and economic mismanagement have brought economic disaster to a country that was once the richest in South America. According to U.N. reports, more than 4 million Venezuelans have been displaced.According to credible reporting by nongovernmental organizations, the regime has committed 6,856 extrajudicial killings and arrested 2,939 people on political grounds in the past year.In response, the U.S. has enacted multiple sanctions targeting Maduro, his family and members of his regime, as well as entities that enrich the former regime. Fifty-five countries, including the United States, have recognized Guaidó as Venezuela’s interim president.The new sanctions prohibit U.S. persons (including anyone present in U.S. territories) from transacting business with the former Maduro regime.Some countries have been supporting Maduro in the hope of recouping earlier loans.“Do not double down on a bad debt,” Bolton warned in discussing the latest sanctions. “The quickest route to getting repaid is to support a new legitimate government.”
By Kay Valle/Diálogo July 13, 2020 Despite the COVID-19 crisis and the measures imposed by the Honduran government to prevent the spread of the virus — including mandatory confinement, border closings, and the deployment of service members and police officers to carry out new tasks — Honduran law enforcement agencies continue to deal a heavy blow to narcotrafficking.From March 16 (when mandatory confinement began) to June 9, the National Anti-mara and Gang Force (FNAMP, in Spanish) seized more than 3 tons of marijuana as part of operations under the framework of the National Inter-Institutional Security Force (FUSINA, in Spanish), the agency said in a statement. In addition to illicit substances, FNAMP units captured 300 gang members and seized 43 weapons, 33 vehicles, and more than $74,900.According to figures the Ministry of Defense provided to Diálogo, law enforcement agencies carried out thousands of security and reconnaissance patrols and captured 670 individuals for narcotrafficking in the first quarter of 2020.Due to government restrictions, criminal groups adapted and began to use vehicles that carry basic supplies, FNAMP said. For example, in late April, FNAMP intercepted a food freight truck on a Tegucigalpa road with more than 1,130 kilograms of marijuana that two members of the Barrio 18 gang (also known as Calle 18 or Mara 18) transported.The other criminals that FNAMP captured in the last three months carried smaller amounts of drugs, the institution reported.“When the COVID-19 emergency began and criminal gang organizations saw their extortion charges decrease, they focused on narcotrafficking in the form of micro-trafficking,” Special Forces Major Ubaldo Rodríguez Chinchilla, chief of the FNAMP Analysis and Intelligence Unit, told Diálogo, referring to the fees criminal groups usually collect from businesses.FNAMP has been working on micro-trafficking cases since early 2020, since according to the institution, more than 90 percent of the distribution is carried out by maras and gangs.“These gang organizations look for opportunities to get involved in narcotrafficking, to get a leading role, hence the interest in using micro-trafficking in our country,” Maj. Rodríguez said.Created in July 2018, the FNAMP’s mission is to fight against maras and gangs engaged in narcotrafficking, extortion, and money laundering, among other related crimes, such as arms trafficking and even terrorism.
LSC now accepting grant applications LSC now accepting grant applicationsThe Legal Services Corporation announces the availability of competitive grant funds to provide civil legal services to eligible clients during calendar year 2003.In accordance with LSC’s multi-year funding policy, grants are available for only specified service areas. A listing of those service areas for each state, and the estimated grant amounts are included in Appendix-A of the Request for Proposals. The Request for Proposals and other information pertaining to the LSC grants competition will be available at www.ain.lsc.gov. Applicants must file a notice of intent to compete to participate in the competitive grants process. Refer to www.ain.lsc.gov for filing dates and submission requirements.E-mail competition inquiries to firstname.lastname@example.org. Fax inquiries may be sent to (877) 378-9997. June 1, 2002 Regular News
State Funding for Legal Aid July 1, 2002 Regular News State Funding for Legal Aid GOV. JEB BUSH has signed the Civil Legal Justice Act and the appropriations bill to make state funding for legal aid programs a reality. Now $2 million is available for a pilot program to provide civil legal assistance in the First, Fourth, Ninth, 12th, 13th, 17th, and 20th judicial circuits. It marks the success of outgoing President Terry Russell’s top legislative priority this year: getting the state to help fund unmet legal needs of poor residents. And perhaps more significantly, it’s the first time Florida has provided money for civil legal aid programs. Until now Florida was one of only 11 states that did not provide state monies for legal aid. The money was appropriated to the Department of Community Affairs, which is mandated to come up with a contract, most likely with The Florida Bar Foundation, to oversee the seven pilot programs, which will help with a variety of family law related problems, including domestic violence, juvenile and elderly abuse, getting benefits from the federal government, and immigration matters. Pictured from the left are Kent Spuhler of Florida Legal Services, Russell, Gov. Bush, Foundation President Darryl Bloodworth, and John F. Harkness, Jr., the Bar’s executive director. Also instrumental in the Act’s passage were Sen. Dudley Goodlette, R-Naples; Rep. Burt Saunders, R-Naples; Sen. Charlie Clary, R-Destin; and Rep. Carlos LaCasa, R-Miami.